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ENC 3455: Writing for STEM

What kinds of fake news exist?

There are four broad categories of fake news, according to media professor Melissa Zimdars of Merrimack College.

CATEGORY 1: Fake, false, or regularly misleading websites that are shared on Facebook and social media. Some of these websites may rely on “outrage” by using distorted headlines and decontextualized or dubious information in order to generate likes, shares, and profits.

CATEGORY 2: Websites that may circulate misleading and/or potentially unreliable information

CATEGORY 3: Websites which sometimes use clickbait-y headlines and social media descriptions

CATEGORY 4: Satire/comedy sites, which can offer important critical commentary on politics and society, but have the potential to be shared as actual/literal news

No single topic falls under a single category - for example, false or misleading medical news may be entirely fabricated (Category 1), may intentionally misinterpret facts or misrepresent data (Category 2), may be accurate or partially accurate but use an alarmist title to get your attention (Category 3) or may be a critique on modern medical practice (Category 4.)  Some articles fall under more than one category.  Assessing the quality of the content is crucial to understanding whether what you are viewing is true or not.   It is up to you to do the legwork to make sure your information is good.

How do you know?

Real or Fake?

This article tells a charming story about how Will Ferrell once broke down in Pensacola and how people stopped to help him and took him to lunch. The article ends with Ferrell saying, "So yeah, that’s my story about Pensacola, Florida. It’s nice to know there are still places like this in America.”

I want to believe it, don't you? Is it real?

  • What do you notice when you go to
  • What about when you search for the story on Google?

Fact-Checking: The Facts

Evaluate, Evaluate, Evaluate

  • Use criteria to evaluate a source. In Libraries, we often use the CRAAP Test* to evaluate websites, and these criteria are useful for evaluating news as well. These criteria are:
    • Currency: is the information current? Many times on Facebook, you will click on a story and notice that the date was from a few months or years ago, but your "friends" are acting outraged as if it is happening in the moment.
    • Relevance: is the information important to your research needs? This criterion perhaps applies most if you are out seeking information, rather than just stumbling across it. Does the information relate to your question and at the appropriate-level (elementary/advanced)? Have you looked at a variety of sources before selecting this one?
    • Authority: who is the author/publisher/sponsor of the news? Do they have authority on the subject? Do they have an agenda? 
    • Accuracy: Is the information supported by evidence? Does the author cite credible sources? Is the information verifiable in other places?
    • Purpose: What is the purpose of this news? To outrage? To call to action? To inform? To sell? This can give you clues about bias.

So, finally, does your news source pass the CRAAP Test?

More on Fact-Checking