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History: Citation Help

Why Cite?

"Your first duty as a researcher is to get the facts right. Your second duty is to tell readers where the facts came from." --Kate Turabian

No matter what style is used, the purpose of any citation method is the same: 

  • to give credit and appropriately attribute the work of others
  • to assure readers about the accuracy of your facts
  • to show readers the research that informs your work
  • to help readers follow or extend your work

Chicago Notes-Bibliography (Turabian) Format

The discipline of History uses Chicago style for citing sources.  Use the format for footnotes/endnotes, not parenthetical citations.  

Use the N format for footnotes/endnotes, and B for a bibliographic entry.  Some of the major differences between the formats are:

  • Indentation: The first line of a footnote is indented, while subsequent lines are not.  Conversely, the first line of a bibliographic citation is not indented, while subsequent lines are.
  • Name Order: Footnotes list author as first name last name, whereas bibliographic citations list author as last name, first name.
  • Punctuation: Footnotes use more commas and bibliographic citations use more periods.  

The following examples of the most commons types of citations are taken/adapted from the 17th edition of the Chicago manual.  For additional examples, consult chapter 14 (pages 741-890) or the online Chicago Quick Guide.

Chicago Notes-Bibliography (Turabian) Citation Style: A Tutorial

Watch this brief video for help with Chicago Notes-Bibliography style:

You may activate the closed-captioning on this video, if desired. A transcript of this video is also provided below.

Managing Citations with RefWorks

Use RefWorks to manage citations from journals, books, documents, and internet sites.

First time users will need to create an account which will permit a user to store citations indefinitely for repeated use.  The UWF group code is RWUWestFlor.

Use the RefWorks tutorial to learn more about this useful database, or watch this brief video.