Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.
UWF Libraries logo
Your opinion counts! Please give us feedback.

Cited Reference Searching

Turabian Format

The discipline of History uses Turabian format for citing sources.  Turabian is a derivative of the Chicago style.  Use Turabian for footnotes/endnotes, not parenthetical citations.  

Use the N format for footnotes/endnotes and B for a bibliographic entry.  Some of the major differences between the formats are:

  • Indentation: The first line of a footnote is indented, while subsequent lines are not.  Conversely, the first line of a bibliographic citation is not indented, while subsequent lines are.
  • Name Order: Footnotes list author as first name last name, whereas bibliographic citations list author as last name, first name.
  • Punctuation: Footnotes use more commas and bibliographic citations use more periods.  

The following examples of the most commons types of citations are taken/adapted directly from the 8th edition (2013) of the Turabian manual.  For additional examples, consult chapter 17 (pages 164-215) of Turabian or the online guide at http://www.press.uchicago.edu/books/turabian/turabian_citationguide.html.

Book,
Single Author
17.1.1

N:         1. Harriet Murav, Music from a Speeding Train: Jewish Literature in Post-revolution Russia (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2011), 219-220.

B:   Murav, Harriet. Music from a Speeding Train: Jewish Literature in Post-revolution Russia. Stanford, CA:
      Stanford University Press, 2011.

Book,
Multiple Authors
17.1.1

N:         2. Donald R. Kinder and Allison Dale-Riddle, The End of Race? Obama, 2008, and Racial Politics in 
America
 (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2012), 47.

B:   Kinder, Donald R., and Allison Dale-Riddle. The End of Race? Obama, 2008, and Racial Politics in 
     America
. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2012.

Book,
Editor or Translator
in Addition to Author
17.1.1.1

N:         3. Elizabeth I, Collected Works, ed. Leah S. Marcus, Janel Mueller, and Mary Beth Rose (Chicago: 
University of Chicago Press, 2000), 102-4.

B:   Elizabeth I. Collected Works. Edited by Leah S. Marcus, Janel Mueller, and Mary Beth Rose. Chicago: 
     University of Chicago Press, 2000.

Book,
Editor or Translator
17.1.1.2

N:        4. Seamus Heaney, trans., Beowulf: A New Verse Translation (New York: W. W. Norton, 2000), 55.

B:   Heaney, Seamus, trans. Beowulf: A New Verse Translation. New York: W. W. Norton, 2000.

Book,
Later Edition
17.1.3

N:         5. Paul J. Bolt, Damon V. Coletta, and Collins G. Shackelford, Jr., eds., American Defense Policy
8th ed. (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005), 157-58.

B:   Bolt, Paul J., Damon V. Coletta, and Collins G. Shackelford, Jr., eds. American Defense Policy. 8th ed.
      Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005.

Chapter in a Book
17.1.8

N:         6. John Demos, "Real Lives and Other Fictions: Reconsidering Wallace Stegner's Angle of 
Repose
," in Novel History: Historians and Novelists Confront America's Past (and Each Other)
ed. Mark C. Carnes (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2001), 132-145.  

B:   Demos, John. "Real Lives and Other Fictions: Reconsidering Wallace Stegner's Angle of Repose." 
     In Novel History: Historians and Novelists Confront America's Past (and Each Other), edited by 
     Mark C. Carnes, 132-145. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2001.

Journal Article
17.2

N:         7. Saskis E. Wieringa, "Portrait of a Women's Marriage: Navigating between Lesbophobia and 
Islamophobia," Signs 36, no. 4 (Summer 2011): 785-86.

B:   Wieringa, Saskia E. "Portrait of a Women's Marriage: Navigating between Lesbophobia and 
     Islamophobia." Signs 36, no. 4 (Summer 2011): 785-93.

Book Review
17.5.4

N:         8. Joel Mokyr, review of Natural Experiments of History, edited by Jared Diamond and James A. 
Robinson, American Historical Review 116, no. 3 (June 2011): 754.

B:   Mokyr, Joel. Review of Natural Experiments of History, edited by Jared Diamond and James A. 
     Robinson. American Historical Review 116, no. 3 (June 2011): 752-55.

Thesis or Disssertation
17.6.1

N:         9. Karen Leigh Culcasi, "Cartographic Representations of Kurdistan in the Print Media" (master's 
thesis, Syrsacuse University, 2003), 15.

B:   Culsaci, Karen Leigh. "Cartographic Representations of Kurdistan in the Print Media." MA thesis, 
      Syracuse University, 2003.

Interview
17.6.3

N:         10. Benjamin Spock, interview by Milton J. E. Senn, November 20, 1974, interview 67A, transcript, 
Senn Oral History Collection, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

B:   Spock, Benjamin. Interview by Milton J. E. Senn. November 20, 1974. Interview 67A, transcript. Senn 
      Oral History Collection, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

Manuscript or Document
17.6.4

N:         11. George Creel to Colonel House, September 25, 1918, Edward M. House Papers, Yale 
University Library, New Haven, CT.

B:   Creel, George. Letter to Colonel House. September 25, 1918. Edward M. House Papers. Yale 
      University Library, New Haven, CT.

Website
17.7.1

N:         12. "Privacy Policy," Google Privacy Center, last modified October 3, 2010, accessed March 3, 
2011, http://www.google.com/intl/en/privacypolicy.html.

B:   Google. "Privacy Policy." Google Privacy Center. Last modified October 3, 2010. Accessed 
      March 3, 2011. http://www.google.com/intl/en/privacypolicy.html.