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UWF Core Teaching Skills Resources

This guide features a collection of resources to assist teacher candidates in implementing the core teaching skills: Differentiation, Assessment, Classroom Management, and Questioning and Feedback to Students.

Feedback to students

According to the Danielson Framework for Teaching (2013), providing feedback to students is an important element of Component 3d: Using assessment in instruction. More specifically, “feedback on learning is an essential element of a rich instructional environment; without it, students are constantly guessing at how they are doing and at how their work can be improved. Valuable feedback must be timely, constructive, and substantive and must provide students the guidance they need to improve their performance” (Danielson, 2013, p.72).


Brookhart (2017) notes that good feedback provides information that students can use to improve their performance. She notes that feedback strategies can vary in the following ways (p. 13).


  • Timing (e.g. when given, how often)

  • Amount (e.g. how many points made, details about each point made).

  • Mode (e.g., oral, written, visual/demonstration)

  • Audience (e.g., individual, small group, whole class)

Below are some research-based recommendations for good feedback (Brookhart, 2017; Hattie & Timperly, 2007):


  • Provide feedback about the performance of the task, strategies used/strategies that could be used, and student self-regulation

  • Focus on important points that relate to the major learning goals

  • Provide immediate feedback for knowledge of facts

  • Delay feedback slightly for student thinking and processing to allow students to hear other perspectives

  • Consider the developmental levels of students and provide feedback to help them achieve the next step (e.g., Where am I now? Where am I going? How can I get there?)

  • Provide individual feedback as much as possible.

  • Provide group feedback when there are common errors.

  • Make time to conference with students about their work and next steps.