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APA Format & Citation Style, 7th edition

A guide to help users create citations using APA (American Psychological Association) style, 7th edition.

Journal Article with One Author

General Format

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Author Surname, Year)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname, Year, page number)


Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Article title: Subtitle. Journal Title, Volume(issue), page range. OR [nothing - if in an online database and does not have a doi] OR URL to document on website if readers can access.]


In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Pettigrew, 2009)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Pettigrew, 2009, p. 61)


Pettigrew, T. F. (2009). Secondary transfer effect of contact: Do intergroup contact effects spread to noncontacted outgroups? Social Psychology, 40(2), 55-65.

Helpful Tips:

DOI:  If a journal article has a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) listed, you will always include this identifier in your reference as a URL. You will not have to include a different URL or the database from which you retrieved the article if a DOI is available. Include a DOI for all works that have a DOI, regardless of whether you used the online version or the print version.

Online Database: If you viewed a journal article in an online database and it does not have a DOI, the reference should be the same as the reference for a print version of the work. In other words, nothing after the page numbers will appear.

Website/Online: If an online work (not including academic research databases), provide the URL in the reference (as long as the URL will work for readers).

Print: If you viewed a journal article in its print format, be sure to check if it has a DOI listed. If it does not, your reference to the article would end after you provide the page range of the article.

Date: When possible, include the year, month, and date in references. If the month and date are not available, use the year of publication.