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EUH 3121: Fall of Rome, Birth of Europe

Chicago Notes-Bibliography (Turabian) Format

The discipline of History uses Chicago style for citing sources.  Use the format for footnotes/endnotes, not parenthetical citations.  

Use the N format for footnotes/endnotes, and B for a bibliographic entry.  Some of the major differences between the formats are:

  • Indentation: The first line of a footnote is indented, while subsequent lines are not.  Conversely, the first line of a bibliographic citation is not indented, while subsequent lines are.
  • Name Order: Footnotes list author as first name last name, whereas bibliographic citations list author as last name, first name.
  • Punctuation: Footnotes use more commas and bibliographic citations use more periods.  

The following examples of the most commons types of citations are taken/adapted directly from the 16th edition of the Chicago manual.  For additional examples, consult chapter 14 (pages 653-784) or the online Chicago Quick Guide.


Chicago Notes-Bibliography (Turabian) Citation Style: A Tutorial

Watch this brief video for help with Turabian style:

You may activate the closed-captioning on this video, if desired. A transcript of this video is also provided below.

Citation Styles

There are many different styles for citing sources among the varying disciplines.  Use the following links for more information and help: