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Biology

Research and resources in biology

APA Format

Many Social Science disciplines use APA format for citing sources.  The most recent guide is the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 6th Edition.  See our additional page to format in-text or parenthetical citations.  

The following examples of the most commons types of citations are adapted from the 6th edition (2010) of the APA manual.  For additional examples, consult chapter 7 (pages 193-224) of the APA Manual or browse the APA Style online guide at http://www.apastyle.org/index.aspx 

Book,
Single Author
7.02

Ball, P. (2001). Bright earth: Art and the invention of color. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.     

Book,
Multiple Authors
7.02

Bird, K., & Martin, J. S. (2005). American prometheus: The triumph and tragedy of J. Robert Oppenheimer. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Book,
Editor
7.02.27

Silverstein, T. (Ed). (1974). Sir Gawain and the green knight. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Chapter in a Book
7.02.25

Demos, J. (2001). Real lives and other fictions: Reconsidering Wallace Stegner's Angle of Repose. ICarnes, M. (Ed.), Novel history: Historians and novelists confront America's past (and each other), (pp. 132-145). New York: Simon and Schuster.

Journal Article
7.01.1

Burns, S. (2005). Ordering the artist's body: Thomas Eakins' acts of self-portrayal. American Art, 19(1), 90-102.

Journal Article with DOI
7.01.

Murdock, L., & Hobbs, J. (2011, July). Picture me playing: Increasing pretend play dialogue of children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41(7), 870-878. doi: 10.1007/s10803-010-1108-6

Journal Article without a DOI

Tilak, J.G. (2002). Education and poverty. Journal of Human Development, 3(2), 191-207. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/cjhd20

Thesis or Dissertation
7.05.41

Erickson, C. (2008). Critical multiculturalism and preservice teacher education (Doctoral dissertation, University of West Florida). Retrieved from http://purl.fcla.edu/fcla/etd/WFE000011

Website (nonperiodical web document)

Florida Department of Education. (2010). Next generation sunshine state standards: Grade two, social studies. Retrieved from http://www.floridastandards.org/Standards/FLStandardSearch.aspx

 

APA Intext Citations

Many Social Science disciplines use APA format for citing sources.  The most recent guide is the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 6th Edition.  See our additional page to format in-text or parenthetical citations.  

The following examples of the most commons types of in-text citations are adapted from the 6th edition (2010) of the APA manual.  For additional examples, consult chapter 6 (pages 174-179) of the APA Manual or browse the APA Style online guide at http://www.apastyle.org/index.aspx  There is a particularly useful chart about in-text citations on page 177.

Book,
Single Author
6.11

In-text citation rule:  For paraphrasing and quotations, always include the author's last name and the date published.  Paraphrases do not have to include page numbers (and some instructors may prefer this method, so check with them). However, in the new edition of the APA Manual, they are recommended.

Referring the author in the text: According to Ball (2001), the earth contains many bright colors (p.10).

Author not referred to in the text: The earth contains many bright colors (Ball, 2001, p.10).

Book,
Multiple Authors
6.12

If a work has only two authors, cite both names each time you reference the material.

     EXAMPLE: According to Bird and Martin (2005), Robert Oppenheimer led a tragic life.

If a work has three, four, or five authors, you should cite all of the authors by last name in the first in-text reference.  In a subsequent reference, you would cite the name of the first author listed followed by et al.

EXAMPLES:

Johnson, Lee, and Martin (2010) attempted this experiment. [first in-text citation]

Johnson et al (2010) confirmed the number of participants.

If a work has six or more authors, only cite the first author's last name followed by et al for all in-text citations.

Vidal et al (2010) concluded that working in a library is the best job a student can have.

Works with no author
6.15

For an in-text citation for a source with no identified author, your in-text citation will include the first part of your reference, usually the title.

EXAMPLE: When research is completed in a timely manner, student grades are better ("How To Succeed," 2010).

Corporate author (easily identified by acronym)

EXAMPLES:

According to the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH, 2007), high cholesterol levels are affecting children as well as adults.

In subsequent in-text citations, you should use NIMH (2003).