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Health, Leisure, and Exercise Science

A guide to research in health and exercise

Using Resources Ethically

STOP! Are you using your resources ethically?  Are you plagiarizing? If you aren't sure, check out this short videos to find out.

APA Format

Many Science disciplines use APA format for citing sources.  The most recent guide is the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 6th Edition.  See our additional page to format in-text or parenthetical citations.  

The following examples of the most commons types of citations are adapted from the 6th edition (2010) of the APA manual.  For additional examples, consult chapter 7 (pages 193-224) of the APA Manual or browse the APA Style online guide at 

Single Author

Ball, P. (2001). Bright earth: Art and the invention of color. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Multiple Authors

Bird, K., & Martin, J. S. (2005). American prometheus: The triumph and tragedy of J. Robert Oppenheimer. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.


Silverstein, T. (Ed). (1974). Sir Gawain and the green knight. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Chapter in a Book

Demos, J. (2001). Real lives and other fictions: Reconsidering Wallace Stegner's Angle of Repose. In Carnes, M. (Ed.), Novel history: Historians and novelists confront America's past (and each other), (pp. 132-145). New York: Simon and Schuster.

Journal Article

Burns, S. (2005). Ordering the artist's body: Thomas Eakins' acts of self-portrayal. American Art, 19(1), 90-102.

Journal Article with DOI

Murdock, L., & Hobbs, J. (2011, July). Picture me playing: Increasing pretend play dialogue of children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41(7), 870-878. doi: 10.1007/s10803-010-1108-6

Thesis or Disssertation

Erickson, C. (2008). Critical multiculturalism and preservice teacher education (Doctoral dissertation, University of West Florida). Retrieved from


Florida Department of Education. (2010). Next Generation Sunshine State Standards: Grade two, social studies. Retrieved from

What About In-Text Citations?

The following examples of the most commons types of in-text citations are adapted from the 6th edition (2010) of the APA manual.  For additional examples, consult chapter 6 (pages 174-179) of the APA Manual or browse the APA Style online guide at  There is a particularly useful chart about in-text citations on page 177.

Single Author

In-text citation rule:  For paraphrasing and quotations, always include the author's last name and the date published.  Paraphrases do not have to include page numbers (and some instructors may prefer this method, so check with them). However, in the new edition of the APA Manual, they are recommended.

Referring the author in the text: According to Ball (2001), the earth contains many bright colors (p.10).

Author not referred to in the text: The earth contains many bright colors (Ball, 2001, p.10).

Multiple Authors

If a work has only two authors, cite both names each time you reference the material.

     EXAMPLE: According to Bird and Martin (2005), Robert Oppenheimer led a tragic life.

If a work has three, four, or five authors, you should cite all of the authors by last name in the first in-text reference.  In a subsequent reference, you would cite the name of the first author listed followed by et al.


Johnson, Lee, and Martin (2010) attempted this experiment. [first in-text citation]

Johnson et al (2010) confirmed the number of participants.

If a work has six or more authors, only cite the first author's last name followed by et al for all in-text citations.

Vidal et al (2010) concluded that working in a library is the best job a student can have.

Works with no author

For an in-text citation for a source with no identified author, your in-text citation will include the first part of your reference, usually the title.

EXAMPLE: When research is completed in a timely manner, student grades are better ("How To Succeed," 2010).

Corporate author (easily identified by acronym)


According to the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH, 2007), high cholesterol levels are affecting children as well as adults.

In subsequent in-text citations, you should use NIMH (2003).

UWF Library Citation Guide

For a comprehensive guide to citing sources and different citation styles, check out our Citing Sources Research Guide!

Find information about:

  • MLA
  • APA
  • Turabian
  • Chicago

Purdue OWL

Purdue OWL (Online Writing Lab) offers explanations on formatting in APA while also providing examples of what a citation, in-text citation, and a properly formatted paper look like.