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Cited Reference Searching

Turabian Format

The discipline of History uses Turabian format for citing sources.  Turabian is a derivative of the Chicago style.  Use Turabian for footnotes/endnotes, not parenthetical citations.  

Use the N format for footnotes/endnotes and B for a bibliographic entry.  Some of the major differences between the formats are:

  • Indentation: The first line of a footnote is indented, while subsequent lines are not.  Conversely, the first line of a bibliographic citation is not indented, while subsequent lines are.
  • Name Order: Footnotes list author as first name last name, whereas bibliographic citations list author as last name, first name.
  • Punctuation: Footnotes use more commas and bibliographic citations use more periods.  

The following examples of the most commons types of citations are taken/adapted directly from the 8th edition (2013) of the Turabian manual.  For additional examples, consult chapter 17 (pages 164-215) of Turabian or the online guide at http://www.press.uchicago.edu/books/turabian/turabian_citationguide.html.

Book,
Single Author
17.1.1

N:         1. Harriet Murav, Music from a Speeding Train: Jewish Literature in Post-revolution Russia (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2011), 219-220.

B:   Murav, Harriet. Music from a Speeding Train: Jewish Literature in Post-revolution Russia. Stanford, CA:
      Stanford University Press, 2011.

Book,
Multiple Authors
17.1.1

N:         2. Donald R. Kinder and Allison Dale-Riddle, The End of Race? Obama, 2008, and Racial Politics in 
America
 (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2012), 47.

B:   Kinder, Donald R., and Allison Dale-Riddle. The End of Race? Obama, 2008, and Racial Politics in 
     America
. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2012.

Book,
Editor or Translator
in Addition to Author
17.1.1.1

N:         3. Elizabeth I, Collected Works, ed. Leah S. Marcus, Janel Mueller, and Mary Beth Rose (Chicago: 
University of Chicago Press, 2000), 102-4.

B:   Elizabeth I. Collected Works. Edited by Leah S. Marcus, Janel Mueller, and Mary Beth Rose. Chicago: 
     University of Chicago Press, 2000.

Book,
Editor or Translator
17.1.1.2

N:        4. Seamus Heaney, trans., Beowulf: A New Verse Translation (New York: W. W. Norton, 2000), 55.

B:   Heaney, Seamus, trans. Beowulf: A New Verse Translation. New York: W. W. Norton, 2000.

Book,
Later Edition
17.1.3

N:         5. Paul J. Bolt, Damon V. Coletta, and Collins G. Shackelford, Jr., eds., American Defense Policy
8th ed. (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005), 157-58.

B:   Bolt, Paul J., Damon V. Coletta, and Collins G. Shackelford, Jr., eds. American Defense Policy. 8th ed.
      Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005.

Chapter in a Book
17.1.8

N:         6. John Demos, "Real Lives and Other Fictions: Reconsidering Wallace Stegner's Angle of 
Repose
," in Novel History: Historians and Novelists Confront America's Past (and Each Other)
ed. Mark C. Carnes (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2001), 132-145.  

B:   Demos, John. "Real Lives and Other Fictions: Reconsidering Wallace Stegner's Angle of Repose." 
     In Novel History: Historians and Novelists Confront America's Past (and Each Other), edited by 
     Mark C. Carnes, 132-145. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2001.

Journal Article
17.2

N:         7. Saskis E. Wieringa, "Portrait of a Women's Marriage: Navigating between Lesbophobia and 
Islamophobia," Signs 36, no. 4 (Summer 2011): 785-86.

B:   Wieringa, Saskia E. "Portrait of a Women's Marriage: Navigating between Lesbophobia and 
     Islamophobia." Signs 36, no. 4 (Summer 2011): 785-93.

Book Review
17.5.4

N:         8. Joel Mokyr, review of Natural Experiments of History, edited by Jared Diamond and James A. 
Robinson, American Historical Review 116, no. 3 (June 2011): 754.

B:   Mokyr, Joel. Review of Natural Experiments of History, edited by Jared Diamond and James A. 
     Robinson. American Historical Review 116, no. 3 (June 2011): 752-55.

Thesis or Disssertation
17.6.1

N:         9. Karen Leigh Culcasi, "Cartographic Representations of Kurdistan in the Print Media" (master's 
thesis, Syrsacuse University, 2003), 15.

B:   Culsaci, Karen Leigh. "Cartographic Representations of Kurdistan in the Print Media." MA thesis, 
      Syracuse University, 2003.

Interview
17.6.3

N:         10. Benjamin Spock, interview by Milton J. E. Senn, November 20, 1974, interview 67A, transcript, 
Senn Oral History Collection, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

B:   Spock, Benjamin. Interview by Milton J. E. Senn. November 20, 1974. Interview 67A, transcript. Senn 
      Oral History Collection, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

Manuscript or Document
17.6.4

N:         11. George Creel to Colonel House, September 25, 1918, Edward M. House Papers, Yale 
University Library, New Haven, CT.

B:   Creel, George. Letter to Colonel House. September 25, 1918. Edward M. House Papers. Yale 
      University Library, New Haven, CT.

Website
17.7.1

N:         12. "Privacy Policy," Google Privacy Center, last modified October 3, 2010, accessed March 3, 
2011, http://www.google.com/intl/en/privacypolicy.html.

B:   Google. "Privacy Policy." Google Privacy Center. Last modified October 3, 2010. Accessed 
      March 3, 2011. http://www.google.com/intl/en/privacypolicy.html.